NEW YORK: Pfizer Inc. announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted Breakthrough Therapy designation for XALKORI® (crizotinib) for the treatment of patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with MET exon 14 alterations with disease progression on or after platinum-based chemotherapy.
The FDA also granted Breakthrough Therapy designation for XALKORI for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) that is anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive.
MET is a transmembrane tyrosine receptor kinase which is expressed in several types of cells. In patients with NSCLC, MET exon 14 alterations occur in approximately three percent of NSCLC tumors. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a rare type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, divided into ALK-positive or ALK-negative disease.Despite the activity of chemotherapy, many patients with ALCL relapse or require alternative treatment approaches.
“Biomarker-driven therapies have changed the way we treat cancer, helping to ensure that patients receive the right medicine for their disease,” said Mace Rothenberg, M.D., chief development officer, Oncology, Pfizer Global Product Development. “These Breakthrough Therapy designations for XALKORI exemplify our commitment to precision medicine development and delivering medicines that have the potential to transform the lives of patients whose cancers carry these genomic alterations.”
XALKORI is currently approved in the U.S. for the treatment of patients with metastatic NSCLC whose tumors are ALK-positive or ROS1-positive as detected by an FDA-approved test. XALKORI became a first-line standard of care for ALK-positive metastatic NSCLC in its first approved indication and has proven to be a practice-changing treatment for patients with ALK-positive and ROS1-positive NSCLC, globally.
It is the only FDA-approved treatment indicated for both ALK-positive and ROS1-positive metastatic NSCLC. If approved in patients with metastatic NSCLC with MET exon 14 alterations, XALKORI will be the only TKI with demonstrated efficacy in three separate biomarker-driven indications in NSCLC.
The Breakthrough Therapy designation for patients with metastatic NSCLC with MET exon 14 alterations was supported by results from an expansion cohort of the Phase 1 PROFILE 1001 study, in which XALKORI showed antitumor activity.
The designation for patients with relapsed or refractory systemic ALCL that is ALK-positive was supported by the results from Study ADVL0912 (NCT00939770) and Study A8081013 (NCT01121588).
Study ADVL0912 is a Phase 1/2 study conducted by the Children’s Oncology Group evaluating the maximum dose that is safe and tolerable and assessing preliminary clinical activity in pediatric patients with relapsed or refractory solid tumors and ALCL.
Study A8081013 evaluated XALKORI in pediatric and adult patients with advanced malignancies known to be ALK-positive other than NSCLC and included patients with relapsed/refractory ALCL. These two studies showed compelling antitumor activity in pediatric and adult patients who received XALKORI.
The FDA’s Breakthrough Therapy designation is intended to expedite the development and review of a medicine if it is intended to treat a serious or life-threatening disease and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the drug may demonstrate substantial improvement over existing therapies. The Breakthrough Therapy designation is distinct from the FDA’s other mechanisms to expedite drug development and review.
About MET Alterations in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide.9 NSCLC accounts for about 85 percent of lung cancer cases and remains difficult to treat, particularly in the metastatic setting.10Approximately 75 percent of NSCLC patients are diagnosed late with a metastatic or advanced disease where the five-year survival rate is only five percent.
MET is a transmembrane tyrosine receptor kinase which is expressed in several types of cells. In patients with NSCLC, MET exon 14 alterations occur in approximately three percent of NSCLC tumors.
About Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma
Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a rare type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), but one of the more common subtypes of T-cell lymphoma. ALCL comprises about two percent of all NHLs and approximately 20 percent of all T-cell lymphomas. Patients with systemic ALCL are divided into two groups, ALK-positive or ALK-negative. Both of these lymphomas are treated as aggressive (fast-growing) lymphomas, yet many patients still relapse or require alternative treatment approaches. ALK-positive ALCL usually affects children and young adults.
About XALKORI® (crizotinib)
XALKORI is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) indicated for the treatment of patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose tumors are anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) or ROS1-positive as detected by an FDA-approved test. XALKORI has received approval for patients with ALK-positive NSCLC in more than 90 countries including Australia, Canada, China, Japan, South Korea and the European Union. XALKORI is also approved for ROS1-positive NSCLC in more than 60 countries.
XALKORI® Important Safety Information
Hepatotoxicity: Drug-induced hepatotoxicity with fatal outcome occurred in 0.1% of patients treated with XALKORI across clinical trials (n=1719). Transaminase elevations generally occurred within the first 2 months. Monitor liver function tests, including ALT, AST, and total bilirubin, every 2 weeks during the first 2 months of treatment, then once a month, and as clinically indicated, with more frequent repeat testing for increased liver transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, or total bilirubin in patients who develop transaminase elevations. Permanently discontinue for ALT/AST elevation >3 times ULN with concurrent total bilirubin elevation >1.5 times ULN (in the absence of cholestasis or hemolysis); otherwise, temporarily suspend and dose-reduce XALKORI as indicated.
Interstitial Lung Disease (Pneumonitis): Severe, life-threatening, or fatal interstitial lung disease (ILD)/pneumonitis can occur. Across clinical trials (n=1719), 2.9% of XALKORI-treated patients had any grade ILD, 1.0% had Grade 3/4, and 0.5% had fatal ILD. ILD generally occurred within 3 months after initiation of treatment. Monitor for pulmonary symptoms indicative of ILD/pneumonitis. Exclude other potential causes and permanently discontinue XALKORI in patients with drug-related ILD/pneumonitis.
QT Interval Prolongation: QTc prolongation can occur. Across clinical trials (n=1616), 2.1% of patients had QTcF (corrected QT by the Fridericia method) ≥500 ms and 5.0% had an increase from baseline QTcF ≥60 ms by automated machine-read evaluation of ECGs. Avoid use in patients with congenital long QT syndrome. Monitor ECGs and electrolytes in patients with congestive heart failure, bradyarrhythmias, electrolyte abnormalities, or who are taking medications that prolong the QT interval. Permanently discontinue XALKORI in patients who develop QTc >500 ms or ≥60 ms change from baseline with Torsade de pointes, polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, or signs/symptoms of serious arrhythmia. Withhold XALKORI in patients who develop QTc >500 ms on at least 2 separate ECGs until recovery to a QTc ≤480 ms, then resume at a reduced dose.
Bradycardia: Symptomatic bradycardia can occur. Across clinical trials, bradycardia occurred in 12.7% of patients treated with XALKORI (n=1719). Avoid use in combination with other agents known to cause bradycardia. Monitor heart rate and blood pressure regularly. In cases of symptomatic bradycardia that is not life-threatening, hold XALKORI until recovery to asymptomatic bradycardia or to a heart rate of ≥60 bpm, re-evaluate the use of concomitant medications, and adjust the dose of XALKORI. Permanently discontinue for life-threatening bradycardia due to XALKORI; however, if associated with concomitant medications known to cause bradycardia or hypotension, hold XALKORI until recovery to asymptomatic bradycardia or to a heart rate of ≥60 bpm. If concomitant medications can be adjusted or discontinued, restart XALKORI at 250 mg once daily with frequent monitoring.
Severe Visual Loss: Across clinical trials, the incidence of Grade 4 visual field defect with vision loss was 0.2% (n=1719). Discontinue XALKORI in patients with new onset of severe visual loss (best corrected vision less than 20/200 in one or both eyes). Perform an ophthalmological evaluation. There is insufficient information to characterize the risks of resumption of XALKORI in patients with a severe visual loss; a decision to resume should consider the potential benefits to the patient.
Vision Disorders: Most commonly visual impairment, photopsia, blurred vision or vitreous floaters, occurred in 63.1% of 1719 patients. The majority (95%) of these patients had Grade 1 visual adverse reactions. 0.8% of patients had Grade 3 and 0.2% had Grade 4 visual impairment. The majority of patients on the XALKORI arms in Studies 1 and 2 (>50%) reported visual disturbances which occurred at a frequency of 4-7 days each week, lasted up to 1 minute, and had mild or no impact on daily activities.
Embryo-Fetal Toxicity: XALKORI can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Advise of the potential risk to the fetus. Advise females of reproductive potential and males with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment and for at least 45 days (females) or 90 days (males) respectively, following the final dose of XALKORI.
ROS1-positive Metastatic NSCLC: Safety was evaluated in 50 patients with ROS1-positive metastatic NSCLC from a single-arm study, and was generally consistent with the safety profile of XALKORI evaluated in patients with ALK-positive metastatic NSCLC. Vision disorders occurred in 92% of patients in the ROS1 study; 90% of patients had Grade 1 vision disorders and 2% had Grade 2.
Adverse Reactions: Safety was evaluated in a phase 3 study in previously untreated patients with ALK-positive metastatic NSCLC randomized to XALKORI (n=171) or chemotherapy (n=169). Serious adverse events were reported in 34% of patients treated with XALKORI, the most frequent were dyspnea (4.1%) and pulmonary embolism (2.9%). Fatal adverse events in XALKORI-treated patients occurred in 2.3% of patients, consisting of septic shock, acute respiratory failure, and diabetic ketoacidosis. Common adverse reactions (all grades) occurring in ≥25% and more commonly (≥5%) in patients treated with XALKORI vs chemotherapy were vision disorder (71% vs 10%), diarrhea (61% vs 13%), edema (49% vs 12%), vomiting (46% vs 36%), constipation (43% vs 30%), upper respiratory infection (32% vs 12%), dysgeusia (26% vs 5%), and abdominal pain (26% vs 12%). Grade 3/4 reactions occurring at a ≥2% higher incidence with XALKORI vs chemotherapy were QT prolongation (2% vs 0%), esophagitis (2% vs 0%), and constipation (2% vs 0%). In patients treated with XALKORI vs chemotherapy, the following occurred: elevation of ALT (any grade [79% vs 33%] or Grade 3/4 [15% vs 2%]); elevation of AST (any grade [66% vs 28%] or Grade 3/4 [8% vs 1%]); neutropenia (any grade [52% vs 59%] or Grade 3/4 [11% vs 16%]); lymphopenia (any grade [48% vs 53%] or Grade 3/4 [7% vs 13%]); hypophosphatemia (any grade [32% vs 21%] or Grade 3/4 [10% vs 6%]). In patients treated with XALKORI vs chemotherapy, renal cysts occurred (5% vs 1%). Nausea (56%), decreased appetite (30%), fatigue (29%), and neuropathy (21%) also occurred in patients taking XALKORI.
Drug Interactions: Exercise caution with concomitant use of moderate CYP3A inhibitors. Avoid grapefruit or grapefruit juice which may increase plasma concentrations of crizotinib. Avoid concomitant use of strong CYP3A inducers and inhibitors. Avoid concomitant use of CYP3A substrates with narrow therapeutic range in patients taking XALKORI. If concomitant use of CYP3A substrates with narrow therapeutic range is required in patients taking XALKORI, dose reductions of the CYP3A substrates may be required due to adverse reactions.
Lactation: Because of the potential for adverse reactions in breastfed infants, advise females not to breastfeed during treatment with XALKORI and for 45 days after the final dose.
Hepatic Impairment: Crizotinib concentrations increased in patients with pre-existing moderate (any AST and total bilirubin >1.5x ULN and ≤3x ULN) or severe (any AST and total bilirubin >3x ULN) hepatic impairment. Reduce XALKORI dose in patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment. The recommended dose of XALKORI in patients with pre-existing moderate hepatic impairment is 200 mg orally twice daily or with pre-existing severe hepatic impairment is 250 mg orally once daily.
Renal Impairment: Decreases in estimated glomerular filtration rate occurred in patients treated with XALKORI. Administer XALKORI at a starting dose of 250 mg taken orally once daily in patients with severe renal impairment (CLcr <30 mL/min) not requiring dialysis.